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雅思写作话题培训:国际援助的利弊

时间:2021-01-09

来源:朗思教育

作者:陈老师

关于雅思写作话题,一直都都紧跟社会热点,前面我们给大家整理了很多雅思写作话题素材,本期杭州雅思培训班陈老师继续给大家介绍一下全球化话题:国际援助的利弊,这篇雅思写作高分范文学习笔记,选自机经真题。

本期我们来看全球化类话题
Some people think giving aid to poorer countries brings more negatives than positives.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
(一些人认为援助贫穷国家的消极影响多于积极影响。你在多大程度上赞同或不赞同?)

先来个头脑风暴,have a try~问题:援助贫穷国家的消极影响和积极影响,你可以给出哪些观点?

When rich countries started giving aid to poorer countries around the 1960s, it seemed beyond the question that this would be helpful; it was just a question of who to give to and how much. Fast forward to today, however, there is a growing belief that such aid isn't just ineffective, but is actually harmful to the recipients. This is of course strongly disputed by aid agencies and charities.
Such groups point to countless examples of where aid has irrefutably brought real, tangible benefits to people in great need. Africa is full of villages that now have clean water wells, built with aid money, when previously villagers got sick drinking filthy water. Perhaps millions of lives have been saved through food aid in countries suffering from famine, and foreign aid money has built high quality hospitals in places that lacked even the most rudimentary of health care. There are simply so many of such examples that it seems odd to some that anyone would even question the benefit of aid.
However, question they do, and for good reason. Studies have identified a peculiar phenomenon known as “micro-macro paradox”. This refers to the fact that although there are seemingly endless examples of success at local level, this does not translate into wider progress. The countries that receive the most aid are not making great strides forward and in some cases actually seem to be going backwards. There are a multitude of reasons suggested for this, focusing mainly on the economic and political consequences of aid. First of all, aid can have the effective disrupting local market. A farmer growing and selling rice locally cannot possibly compete with the sacks and sacks of free rice given through aid programs. Prices will be forced down, and many producers will go out of business. With fewer local producers, even more aid will be required and so a system of dependence is created. In terms of governance with so much free cash floating around corruption is almost inevitable, and politicians have little incentive to create wealth themselves; many just hope to stay in power and keep taking their cut of aid money. Furthermore, the fact that the government does not depend on taxation as its primary source of income means that the link between the government and its people is broken. The government does not rely on its people and the people do not rely on their government, a situation which is unlikely to lead to progress.
Although aid has often had great success at a micro level, it has had much fewer wider successes. Foreign aid to poor countries can in truth often be more of a hindrance, weakening countries in the long term by disrupting the local economy and disincentivizing responsible governance.
图片

接下来,我们来分析范文的结构及观点。

段落一(开头段)
【背景信息】When rich countries started giving aid to poorer countries around the 1960s, it seemed beyond the question that this would be helpful; it was just a question of who to give to and how much. Fast forward to today, however, there is a growing belief that such aid isn't just ineffective, but is actually harmful to the recipients. This is of course strongly disputed by aid agencies and charities.
参考译文:当富裕国在二十世纪60年代左右开始向较贫穷的国家提供援助时,似乎不仅仅是‘这将会是有帮助的’问题,这是一个向谁提供援助和给予多少援助的问题。然而,快速发展到今天,人们越来越相信这种援助不仅是无效的,而且实际上对受援国有害。这当然受到援助机构和慈善机构的强烈质疑。
【语料积累】Fast forward to today快速发展到今天

段落二(主体段一)
【援助积极影响】①Such groups point to countless examples of where aid has irrefutably brought real, tangible benefits to people in great need. Africa is full of villages that now have clean water wells, built with aid money, when previously villagers got sick drinking filthy water. Perhaps millions of lives have been saved through food aid in countries suffering from famine, and foreign aid money has built high quality hospitals in places that lacked even the most rudimentary of health care. There are simply so many of such examples that it seems odd to some that anyone would even question the benefit of aid.
参考译文:这些团体指出无数例子,表明援助无可辩驳地给急需援助的人带来真正、切实的利益。非洲到处都是村庄,现在有用援助资金建造的干净水井,而之前村民生病时喝非饮用水。在遭受饥荒的国家,也许通过粮食援助拯救了数百万人的生命,并且国际援助资金已经在缺乏最基本医疗保障的地方建立了高品质医院。有这么多此例子,以至于‘任何人都会质疑援助的好处’这个情况对一些人来说似乎很奇怪。
【语料积累】people in great need急需援助的人
【语料积累】filthy water脏水,filthy也可表示恶劣的,比如filthy weather
【语料积累】rudimentary初步的/基本的
【语料积累】question作动词表示质疑

段落三(主体段二)
【援助消极影响】①However, question they do, and for good reason. Studies have identified a peculiar phenomenon known as “micro-macro paradox”. This refers to the fact that although there are seemingly endless examples of success at local level, this does not translate into wider progress. The countries that receive the most aid are not making great strides forward and in some cases actually seem to be going backwards. There are a multitude of reasons suggested for this, focusing mainly on the economic and political consequences of aid. ②First of all, aid can have the effective disrupting local market. A farmer growing and selling rice locally cannot possibly compete with the sacks and sacks of free rice given through aid programs. Prices will be forced down, and many producers will go out of business. With fewer local producers, even more aid will be required and so a system of dependence is created. ③In terms of governance with so much free cash floating around corruption is almost inevitable, and politicians have little incentive to create wealth themselves; many just hope to stay in power and keep taking their cut of aid money. Furthermore, the fact that the government does not depend on taxation as its primary source of income means that the link between the government and its people is broken. The government does not rely on its people and the people do not rely on their government, a situation which is unlikely to lead to progress.
【论点】①However, question they do, and for good reason. Studies have identified a peculiar phenomenon known as “micro-macro paradox”. This refers to the fact that although there are seemingly endless examples of success at local level, this does not translate into wider progress. The countries that receive the most aid are not making great strides forward and in some cases actually seem to be going backwards. There are a multitude of reasons suggested for this, focusing mainly on the economic and political consequences of aid.
参考译文:然而,援助带来问题是有充分理由的。研究发现一种被称为“微宏悖论”的奇特现象。指的是,虽然在地方层面似乎有无穷无尽的成功例子,但这并没有转化为更广泛的进步。得到最多援助的国家没有取得很大进步,在某些情况下实际上正在倒退。这方面有许多理由,主要侧重于援助的经济和政治后果。
【语料积累】make great strides forward取得巨大进步,stride可作动词也可作名词,表示阔步行走
【语料积累】a multitude of sth.大量/大批

【论据一:经济】②First of all, aid can have the effective disrupting local market. A farmer growing and selling rice locally cannot possibly compete with the sacks and sacks of free rice given through aid programs. Prices will be forced down, and many producers will go out of business. With fewer local producers, even more aid will be required and so a system of dependence is created.
参考译文:首先,援助可以有效地扰乱当地市场。一个在当地种植和销售大米的农民不可能与通过援助计划提供的免费大米竞争。价格将被迫下降,许多生产商面临倒闭。由于当地生产者较少,将需要更多的援助,因此形成了一个依赖系统。
【语料积累】be forced down被迫下跌
【语料积累】go out of business倒闭

【论据二:政治】③In terms of governance with so much free cash floating around corruption is almost inevitable, and politicians have little incentive to create wealth themselves; many just hope to stay in power and keep taking their cut of aid money. Furthermore, the fact that the government does not depend on taxation as its primary source of income means that the link between the government and its people is broken. The government does not rely on its people and the people do not rely on their government, a situation which is unlikely to lead to progress.
参考译文:在治理方面,如此多的自由现金游走在腐败边缘几乎是不可避免的,政客们几乎没有动力自己创造财富;许多人只是希望继续掌权,并且继续占有援助资源。此外,政府不依赖税收作为其主要收入来源,这意味着政府与其民众之间的联系被打破。政府不依靠民众,民众不依靠政府,此情况不可能促发展。
【语料积累】stay in power掌权

段落四(结尾段:总结)
【消极多于积极】Although aid has often had great success at a micro level, it has had much fewer wider successes. Foreign aid to poor countries can in truth often be more of a hindrance, weakening countries in the long term by disrupting the local economy and disincentivizing responsible governance.
参考译文:虽然援助往往在微观层面取得巨大成功,但更广泛的成功却少得多。对贫穷国家的国际援助实际上往往更多地是一种阻碍,从长远来看,通过破坏当地经济和抑制负责的治理,削弱了国家政权的实力。
【语料积累】be more of a hindrance更多地是一种阻碍
综上所述,范文的结构是:开头段(背景信息)+主体段一(积极影响=生活保障)+主体段二(消极影响=扰乱经济+政治削弱)+ 结尾段(消极多于积极),这也是观点类写作的作文结构。

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最后,看你是否能更自信地头脑风暴,用上今日所学,试一试:援助贫穷国家的消极影响和积极影响(平时写作过程中,多用新积累的观点替换自己已有的观点,巩固吸收)今天的讲解就到这里,希望能够启发你对国际援助积极影响和消极影响的思考~
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